1. EGYPTIAN RELIGION

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Estimated year of creation: 3,000 BC

Headquarters / Capital in the world: Memphis, Egypt.

Number of faithful around the world: N / A.

God or Prophet of the ancient Egyptians: Osiris.

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Main symbol of the god of ancient Egyptians: Egyptian Cross or Ankh.

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Main books of ancient Egyptians: Among the most popular stories are the History of Sinuhe and the History of the eloquent peasant and among the most significant teachings are the Instructions of Amenemhat and The teaching of loyalty.

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Main deities of the ancient Egyptians:

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Amun "The Hidden One "

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Amun was the most versatile and well-known deity, the king of the gods. He was the personification of the occult and creative power. It was said that it could not be seen by anyone, mortals or gods. He is linked to the navigators, being their protector, so it was not strange to see his name engraved on the rudders of the Ancient Egyptian boats.

Ra


He was one of the most important gods for the Egyptians as he was the one who gave light every day. His representation was a hawk head along with a solar disk. Every night he traveled 12 hours from east to west, through the 12 regions of the Duat inhabited by monsters that tried to stop the night and make it eternal.

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Thot


He was the god of writing and calculations. Ra placed it in the sky to illuminate after his retreat, making it a moon god. All these characteristics gave him the power to measure time and calendars and to be the one that allowed the birth of Osiris, Seth, Horus the old, Isis and Nephthys in “five new days”.

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Mut


She was considered the mother, the origin of everything that exists. It was always placed between the sun and the moon, like a third eye showing cosmic perfection. It was one of the statuettes in front of which a few words were pronounced when someone died, so that it would not decompose.

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Isis


She was the Queen of the goddesses, the great retriever mother goddess and embalmer of the body of Osiris. Considered the goddess of motherhood and birth, protector of all mothers and children. She was considered the governess of marriage.

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Osiris


Husband of Isis, he was considered a direct ancestor of royalty. He was one of the most important in ancient Egypt, he was the god of resurrection. The dead were entrusted to him in their transit to a new life.

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Horus


He was the oldest royal god, he was shaped like a hawk. He was the lord of the mountain, where the sun rises every morning. When the cult of Osiris rose to prominence, Horus became the son of Osiris. Osiris, Isis, and Horus were the most important triad of gods. In the Book of the Dead Horus, in his form as Haroeris, helped Pharaoh to ascend to heaven.

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Basic principles of ancient Egyptians:

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The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces themselves. These deified forces included the elements, animal characteristics, or abstract forces. They also believed in a pantheon of gods, who were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Religious practices were efforts to maintain and placate these phenomena and make them advantageous to humans. This polytheistic system was very complex, as it was believed that some deities existed in different manifestations, and some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities. The diversity of the pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or with very limited or local functions. It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, and sometimes humans: deceased pharaohs were considered divine, and occasionally, distinguished commoners like Imhotep were also deified.

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Representations of the gods in art were not intended to be literal representations of their appearance, if they were real, since the true nature of the gods was believed to be mysterious. Instead, these representations gave recognizable shapes to abstract deities by using symbolic images to indicate the role of each god in nature. Thus, for example, the funerary god Anubis was represented as a jackal , a creature whose scavenging habits threatened the preservation of the body, in an effort to counter this threat and use it for its protection. His black skin was symbolic of the color of mummified flesh and the fertile black soil that the Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection. This iconography was not fixed, and many of the gods could be represented in more than one way.

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Many gods were associated with particular regions of Egypt where their cults were the most important. However, these associations changed over time, so that a god associates with a place does not mean that his worship originated there. Therefore, the god Monthu was the patron of the city of Thebes. Throughout the Middle Kingdom period , however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who perhaps emerged elsewhere. The national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way.

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Short description of the ancient Egyptians.

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The religion of Ancient Egypt was a complex belief system that was an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It focused on the interaction of the Egyptians with various deities who believed they were in control of the forces and elements of nature. The practices of the Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and win their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh , king of Egypt, who was believed to possess divine power by virtue of his position. This was considered as a god and was obliged to support the gods through rituals and offerings so that they would maintain the universal order . The state devoted a large amount of resources to rituals and temple construction.

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Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or causing them to act through black magic. These practices were distinct, but closely related to rituals and formal institutions. The popular religious tradition grew prominently in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined. Another important aspect was the belief in the afterlife and burial practices . The Egyptians made great efforts to ensure the survival of the soul after death, providing tombs, grave goods, and offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased.

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The religion had its roots in Egyptian prehistory and lasted for more than 3,000 years.

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Reference:

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https://www.ecured.cu/Antiguo_Egipto

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https://canalhistoria.es/blog/los-principales-dioses-del-antiguo-egipto/

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Ultimate document on thought and religion in ancient Egypt:

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http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/68580/1/camps%20vives%20eduard.pdf

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