19. MODERN HELENISM

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Estimated year of creation: 600 BC, and later updated in 2005

Headquarters / Capital in the world: Greece.

Number of faithful around the world: 2,000.

God or Prophet of Hellenism: Zeus.

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Main symbol of Hellenism: The Crown of Laurels.

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Main books of Hellenism:

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One of the main characteristics of this religion is that it is a set of traditions that have been kept in memory and only thus have they been known, that is why the books that collect all this set of facts and teachings are the ones that are enshrined as the most important texts within the religion, among them are the following:

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Theogony: this work is translated as "Origin of the gods", it was written by Hesiod and is considered one of the initial versions about the origin of the cosmos, the creation of the Gods and the origin of the human being in the world. It is believed that the origin of Hesiod's Theogony is in the 8th or 7th century BC The work contains a great variety of genres of a poetic nature that were directly related to the oral tradition of the time in Ancient Greece, since contains: myths of succession, genealogies, cosmogonies, catalogs and theogonies. In the text is the explanation about the first generation of the Olympian Gods, as well as the first part of the succession myth, the second and third generation of the gods, as well as the end of the succession myth, the fourth generation of gods and the end that contains the union of the goddesses with the men of the earth.

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The Iliad: This text is about a Greek epic that has traditionally been attributed to Homer as the author. Together with the following book that we will see later, it has been considered one of the fundamental works for the practice of Greek pedagogy, as well as the most important compositions within the Literature of Ancient Greece, since it is composed of epic poems of various authors. Although it is not possible to establish a precise date about its writing, several experts point out that the work is located in the 6th century BC, although others place it during the second half of the 8th century BC The epic poem of The Iliad, narrates Achilles' anger, as well as what causes it and the consequences that it has later, giving way to one of the most important confrontations of this time.

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The Odyssey: similar to The Iliad, The Odyssey is a Greek epic poem that has 24 songs and it is assumed, it would also be written by Homer, around the 8th century BC This text narrates the return of the hero Odysseus after the Trojan War It also tells of the ten years that he was away from home in a great variety of adventures and struggles to return to Ithaca, where his wife Penelope awaits him. However, when Odyssey arrives, he finds his wife with a huge line of suitors who wish to handcuff her, believing Odysseus dead.

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This text is composed of three essential classifications, the first of which is the return of Odysseus to Ithaca, then there is the Trojan War, the search for his son and a series of narrations about the stories during navigation, which take place within from the typical tales of the epic of seafaring towns where fantastic places, monsters and voyages through the sea must undoubtedly be present during Greek expeditions.

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Greek Mythology: and last but not least, there is the book of Greek Mythology, a text that is composed of a series of myths and legends of Ancient Greece, which tell the stories of heroes and gods of this time, as well as the nature of the world, the origin of the earth and the meaning and importance of the ritual practices and traditions that were carried out. It is important to mention that initially these texts were transmitted from the oral poetic tradition, but soon they began to appear in fragments and stories that make up Greek literature.

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On the other hand, the reconstruction of Greek mythology was aided not only by the texts found, but also by a series of archaeological finds that contain important details about religious traditions, as well as scenes from the Trojan cycle, the adventures of heroes and mythological scenes that constitute the literary evidence of Ancient Greece.

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Main gods of Hellenism:

The main gods of this religion are called Dodekatheon, which refers to the twelve Gods of Olympus, however, many of the children of these primordial gods of the doctrine are also venerated. The gods of the Dodekatheon are as follows:

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Zeus: He is the supreme god and the king of all the gods within the Dodekatheon. His hand always wields lightning as a symbol of power. Zeus comes from the titans Cronos and Rhea, whose father, Cronos, was defeated by him by making him vomit his sons and daughters, other gods within the caste that he had intentionally eaten. This defeat to Cronos allowed Zeus to take possession as ruler.

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Hera: is the wife of Zeus and next to him, the queen of Olympus. Hera is recognized for her strong character and particularly for her jealous attacks against Zeus's numerous lovers. This goddess is generally associated with aspects such as marital fidelity and marriage, essentially, with women.

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Poseidon: this god is distinguished by his strong character and because he tends to get angry easily. Poseidon, God of the oceans is the symbol of an indestructible authority, relating to the power of water, which is why Poseidon is often associated with rivers and seas, in addition, also with animals of great character such as horses and phenomena such as earthquakes.

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Apollo: considered the god of light, this divinity represents and encourages us to raise our gaze beyond the horizon, a distant place that allows us to perceive new visions, as it is related to vision in the distance. Apollo is usually attributed aspects such as prophecy, healing methods, and arts such as music and poetry, mainly.

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Artemis: twin sister of the God Apollo, Artemis is the goddess of the hunt, so she remains in wild places. Generally this goddess is associated with elements of nature such as the moon, as well as her brother Apollo is associated with the sun. The attributions that are made to this goddess have to do with chastity, the protection of the sacred forest, animals and children.

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Athena: distinguished for being the Goddess of wisdom, as well as the protector of the city of Athens, to which her name is given and who maintains it to this day. In addition to wisdom, this goddess is often seen as a great warrior who also protects Athens. Athena is attributed aspects such as the arts, war, and education and knowledge (wisdom).

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Ares: he is the son of Zeus and Hera, and god of war, this being his main faculty. However, Ares is often related to other aspects such as themes of dexterity and strength, as well as other elements such as virility and lust.

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Hermes: also called as the -messenger of the Gods-, is considered the God of orientation and therefore is called by travelers in their activities. However, it is not only about physical travel, but also spiritual travel. Faculties related to animal husbandry and commercial activities are also attributed to this God.

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Aphrodite: she is the goddess of love and romanticism, which is why she is associated with this feeling in all its forms, including sexuality and beauty. It is distinguished mainly by being considered among the gods as the most beautiful, as it aroused feelings among the other gods of Olympus, so Zeus decides to offer Hephaestus in marriage. Since Aphrodite is born in the sea, she is often associated with this element of nature.

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Hephaestus: son of Zeus and Hera, he is the god of fire and the forge, as well as being the blacksmith of the gods, given his proximity to handicraft activities, especially the elaboration of weapons. He is associated with metals, sculptors, artisans and as a protector of blacksmiths. It is particularly distinguished by its unattractive physique and a limp in one of its legs.

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Dionysus: he is the god of wine, but also of all kinds of celebrations, since it is to this god that the so-called Mystical Cults are surrendered, which exposed the entire culture of Ancient Greece in Hellenism. Besides being associated with wine and events, Dionysus is often related to sexuality and drunkenness.

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Demeter: daughter of Cronos and Rea, as well as sister and wife of Zeus, she is the goddess of agriculture mainly, although she is usually associated with other aspects such as fertility, the land, and the protection of crops and crops. Within mythology, Demeter would have taught humanity the art of the earth to work it. It is also related to the raising of crops. Hades and Hestia, God of the underworld and goddess of the hearth.

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On the other hand, other gods such as Hestia and Hades appear, Hades being the god of the underworld. He would have taken over the underworld when the world was divided. So while Zeus rules the sky, Poseidon the ocean, Hades rules the underworld. Within the Greek pantheon, Hades occupies a place of utmost importance. For her part, Hestia, goddess of the hearth, resigns her position on Olympus by choice, which will allow her to be in the same human world. This is why the goddess is attributed favors to the homes of the Hellenes from offerings such as food and prayers on a regular basis.

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Heroes: It is known that the Hellenes also worshiped several legendary figures who performed works that deserved their honor, which allows them to position themselves in a divine or semi-divine status. One of the great heroes of this time in Ancient Greece is Achilles and Odysseus.

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Daemons: they are beings that can take multiple forms and representations, both as wild spirits, and as free spirits that in turn can be dangerous as well as beneficial to human beings.

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Reference: https://religionesenelmundo.com/creencias/helenismo/

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Basic principles of Hellenism:

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Although there is no one way to be Hellenic, there are some common beliefs and practices based on current knowledge of ancient Greek culture and religion. Hellenes worship and honor the Greek gods, worship can be performed in temples or in open spaces. Many parts of religion also take place in a family context.

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Short description of Hellenism.

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Hellenism, also called Greek Polytheism , consists of a set of practices and teachings about the Gods of ancient Greece. One of the main characteristics of this religious doctrine has to do with the elimination of borders not only between countries, but also between cultures, in addition to lacking a recognized founder, since it is a set of traditions that have been built with the pass of the time.

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Since it is a religion with a series of gods, we speak of a polytheistic religion, however, among them, the primordial deity is Zeus, since he is considered the supreme God, and later there are the Olympic gods: Hera, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Ares, Athena, Hermes, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Demeter and Hestia.

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Hellenism, although it is based on ancient Greek religion, is still a fairly young movement. As a result, not as much thought has been put into the theology and ethics behind Hellenism. However, there has been a development of thought regarding religion based mainly on the writings of the ancient Greek philosophers and ethicists. Hellenic theology appears to derive primarily from Stoicism, Platonism, and other schools of classical and Hellenistic Greek philosophy.

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One way of looking at the gods is to look at them as principles of order behind nature that make existence possible through the creation of cosmic harmony. They have no needs and are not dependent on humans for their livelihood. They also give freely without expecting anything in return. According to Salustio, its essence is eternal and immutable. Greek myths about gods and heroes are often considered symbolic and reveal deeper truths about the gods.

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Reference:

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https://www.ancient-origins.es/historia-tradiciones-antiguas/helenismo-el-regreso-los-dioses-griegos-005071

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https://religionesenelmundo.com/creencias/helenismo/ -

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