2. THE CHRISTIAN CRUSADES OF THE 11th CENTURY

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The "Crusades" began for reasons of "messianism" and political when Pope Urban II, having received numerous pleas for help from the Byzantine Empire, (the Byzantine Christians had been defeated by the Seljuk at the Battle of Manzerik, in 1071 ), indicates that the pilgrimage to Jerusalem healed everything and was a way to reach paradise.

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Pope Urban II cited a Synod of Archbishops in Clermont, France, in the year 1095. At the end of his address, Pope Urban II quotes the Gospel: “renounce yourself, take up your cross, and follow me” (Matthew 16:24 ). The most prominent inciter was the Monk Pedro Ermitaño. The First Crusade is divided into an initial part, "of farmers", who did not achieve the task of recovering Jerusalem, and a second part, where the European Princes arrive and advance, from Constantinople towards Syria, conquering the lands near the Mediterranean and creating the Principality of Antioch. From Antioch they headed for Jerusalem, conquering it on July 15, 1099.

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During their passage through Europe, as well as during the struggles for the conquest of the lands defended by the enemy armies, the crusaders carried out terrible massacres and brutal bloodthirsty acts that did not respect even their own countrymen (rebels who had joined the Muslims) , as well as, Jews, Muslims, women or children. Muslims saw this brutality as a clear sign of the moral and spiritual inferiority of Christians.

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Reference:

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https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/193643527.pdf

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