3. MANDEISM

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Estimated year of creation: 100 AD

Headquarters / Capital in the world: Iraq and Iran.

Number of faithful around the world: 70 thousand.

God or Prophet of Mandaeism: John the Baptist.

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Main symbol of Mandaeism: Although this religion has a large number of symbols, an exceptional one appears with which the religion is usually related, it is the "Drabsa". It is a wooden cross that is adorned by an olive branch. Often this cross hangs on a white mantle.

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This element is usually always found within the Mandaean temples, especially located on the sources of water.

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Bowls dating from the Mandaean alphabet are also one of the most important symbols for the religion, since these items are used to drive away evil spirits or demons from families. The bowls protect the family that resides in the place where it is located from all evil, since the letters have the power to concentrate the demon and lock it in the bowl so as not to let them escape or do harm.

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Main books of Mandaeism:

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Although not all the texts that have been found belong to the first years in which the religion began, the manuscripts that remain within the sacred books correspond to stages after the 16th century, with the exception of information and material that is considered comes from 700 AD

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Among the most important and sacred texts of the religion, are the following:

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Ginza: refers to "treasure". It is also called as "The Great Book" and "Book of Adam", given the importance of the first man existing on earth. This first text is divided into two parts:

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Ginza on the right: in this part there are eighteen booklets that have to do mainly with aspects of the cosmology and mythology of religion.

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Ginza on the left: this part, also called the "Book of Souls", includes aspects that concern the ascension of the soul towards the kingdom of light, an end present in religion. In it there are also a series of hymns that are usually recited during the mass for the dead, which is called "Masiqta".

The Book of Angels: also called as The Book of John, in this text is a collection that brings together 37 short works of content related to the mythological of faith. The Book of Angels contains a booklet based on John the Baptist, which reaches great relevance within the religion, as well as another reference to the arrival of the heavenly messenger to Jerusalem.

Qolasta: means "anthology" and it contains a series of hymns and songs especially used for the Baptism ceremony, as well as the ascension of the soul. In addition to being present there are the religious hymns of Mandeism, as well as the prayers and songs that are performed. These are accompanied by the pertinent instructions, as well as guides for the practice of the mass for the dead and baptism, the most important celebrations within the religion.

Main prophets of Mandaeism:

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The Mandaeans recognize various prophets. Yahia-Yohanna, known in Christianity as John the Baptist, is given a special status, greater than his role in Christianity and Islam. The Mandaeans do not consider John as the founder of their religion, but they revere him as one of their greatest teachers, tracing their beliefs back to Adam.

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The Mandaeans do not believe in Abraham, Moses, or Jesus, but they do recognize other prophetic figures from the Abrahamic religions such as Adam, his son Seth, and his grandson Anush (Enos), as well as Nuh (Noah), their descendants Sam (Shem), and Ram ( Aram). They consider the last three as their direct ancestors.

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Similarly, the Mandaeans also do not recognize the Holy Spirit from the Talmud and the Bible, whom they know in Mandaean as Ruha, Ruha d-Qudsha, or Ruha Masțanita. Instead of viewing him as a holy spirit, they negatively view him as the embodiment of the lower, emotional and feminine elements of the human psyche.

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Reference:

Basic principles of Mandaeism:

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Within the tradition there are a series of commandments that are rigorously followed by believers, among which are:

Do not blaspheme

Do not murder for any reason

Refrain from any act of adultery.

Do not steal

Don't tell lies

Do not give false testimony

Refrain from committing acts of disloyalty and dishonesty

Refrain from all lustful acts

Do not practice magic and witchcraft

Not circumcise

Refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages

Do not practice usury

Do not cry at the cyclical act that leads to death

Refrain from consuming dead animals, that are pregnant or that have been attacked by other angry animals

Not to get divorced (with certain exceptions)

Do not abort or commit suicide

The body should not be mistreated through modifications such as tattoos and piercings, so you must keep your body free from cuts and wounds.

Do not practice torture on your own body or abstinence

Fathering children to achieve a place in heaven

To get married

It is forbidden to worship Satan, as well as the errors and evil images of the world.

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The belief system of Mandaeism is based on the monotheistic doctrine in a Gnostic dualism in which the world is divided into two parts. Thus, men live in the area of ​​the world that is dominated by darkness, which they can only abandon through death. Once the human being dies, his soul begins a journey through several "stations" in order to find redemption and the passage to the kingdom of light. This process would be of the anima, it would be guided by a kind of messenger that leads them from darkness to light, ending for the being the time of suffering. As for the genesis of the Mandaean faith, it is considered very similar to that of the genesis of Judaism and Christianity. As in the latter religions, Mandaeism considers Adam and Eve to be the first humans to exist on Earth, but the emergence of Eve did not come from the rib of Adam, but was created from the kingdom of light. This explains why in Mandeism the equality of rights and conditions between men and women is of vital importance.

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Brief description of Mandaeism.

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It was a monotheistic religion defined as a Gnostic sect that was practiced by the Mandaeans and that has been around for a long time since ancient times. However, the number of faithful has been potentially reduced, since it is considered that there are at least 60,000 people of Mandaeism in areas such as Iraq, in the cities of Samara, Baghdad, Basra and Nazriya, while others are located in places like New Zealand, Syria, Jordan, the United States and Australia.

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Mandaeism developed between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, on the banks of the Jordan River in northern Israel. Although while accepting a series of elements due to syncretism and the conciliation of other doctrines, it suffered several persecutions exercised by the Islamic fundamentalism of Muslims, which caused the dispersion of the Mandaeans throughout the world.

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Reference :

https://religionesenelmundo.com/creencias/mandeismo/

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https://religionesenelmundo.com/creencias/mandeismo/

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