4. TOLKIENISM

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Year of creation: Between 1937 and 1949.

Prophet: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien.

Headquarters / Capital in the world of Middle-earth: Gondor.

Headquarters / Capital in the world: New Zealand and England.

Number of faithful around the world: Unknown.

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Main symbols: The symbol of Gondores is a White Tree with seven stars around its crown and a crown in the center.

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Main books: The Silmarillion, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.

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The Silmarillion is divided into five parts:

  • Ainulindalë ( The music of the Ainur in Quenya ). Which is about the creation of Eä and, within it, the creation of Arda. It is a beautiful story of the creation of the world and the origin of various things like music and evil.

  • Valaquenta. He speaks of the 'forgers of Arda', who, responding to the wish of their creator and their own dreams to undo a place for the children of Ilúvatar to inhabit, separate from it to forge, each with their own abilities, what elves call Arda. He also speaks of the enemies, those of his own line who have strayed from the path, and of their leader Melkor.

  • Quenta Silmarillion. It deals with the first age of the world, the arrival of elves and men and the appearance of dwarves, and it also narrates the anguish of the Noldor, elves very skilled in forging metals and making things by hand, in against the worst of their enemies: Melkor, whom they call Morgoth Bauglir and who in the end neither they nor men manage to defeat on their own.

  • Akallabêth. (The entombed »in Adûnaic). History of the fall of Númenor, which takes place in the Second Age of the Sun.

  • Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age . A summary that tells what Middle-earth is like and the events that lead to the story of The Lord of the Rings .

Within the five parts some of the most notable chapters of the book are:

  • The music of the Ainur.

  • From Beren and Lúthien .

  • Túrin Turambar (associated with the Narn i Chîn Húrin: the story of the sons of Húrin in the Unfinished Tales and as a separate book, The sons of Húrin).

  • Of Tuor and the fall of Gondolin.

  • From the journey of Eärendil and the War of Wrath.

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In addition, the book includes a long appendix in which you can find who is each character, places, races ... There are also appendices with explanations on pronunciation and etymology of the main languages ​​that appear in the context of Middle Earth, family trees .

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The Lord of the Rings (original title in English: The Lord of the Rings) is a fantastic novel, masterpiece of the writer John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, written in chapters between 1937 and 1949, and set in a fantastic world called Middle Earth, towards the end of his Third Age. It was published in English in 1954, and for the first time, in Spanish by the Minotauro publishing house in Argentina. It has sold billions of copies, is the best-selling best seller of the 20th century, and is believed to be the third best-selling in modern history after the Bible, having been translated into dozens of languages. It has also been adapted to the cinema with overwhelming success. It is one of the works that has most influenced the genre of Anglo-Saxon fantasy literature.

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The title refers to Sauron, the Dark Lord of Mordor, the main villain in history, creator of the One Ring that he used to control the power of the other Rings of Power that were forged by the elven blacksmiths of Eregion, whom Sauron convinced to do so. ; but then he snatched them and distributed them to the rulers of Middle-earth to corrupt them: "Three Rings for the Elven Kings under heaven. Seven for the Dwarf Lords in stone palaces. Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die. One for the Dark Lord, upon the dark throne in the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie. A Ring to rule them all. A Ring to find them, a Ring to attract them all and bind them in darkness in the Land of Mordor where they are Shadows spread. "

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The Lord of the Rings narrates the adventures of a group of beings: (elves, hobbits, dwarves, humans), who form the Fellowship of the Ring in their attempt to destroy the One Ring, forged by Sauron. It is the story of the hero of the common people, of that person who, even knowing that his destiny can be fatal, struggles to fulfill it, since the continuity of his world depends on him. The Lord of the Rings is the continuation of an earlier book by Tolkien: The Hobbit, which tells the story of how the Ring of Power passed into the hands of Bilbo Baggins, Frodo Baggins' uncle. On a deeper level, it is the continuation of another book called The Silmarillion, which talks about the creation of Middle-earth and all the creatures that inhabit it; as well as the first Dark Lord (Morgoth or Melkor for some), master of Sauron, and of the fights for the Silmarils.

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Tolkien wrote and thought throughout his life the entire story of his epic fantasy world, several tens of thousands of years of pure poetry, and "The Lord of the Rings" represents only the culmination of that vast history, the end of Middle Earth, and the beginning of the Fourth Age, the Age of Men. In "The Lord of the Rings" the magical forces disappear, the fantastic creatures are already very rare and not very powerful, the elves and wizards migrate to the Undying Lands (something similar to Valhalla from Norse mythology), and the sorcerers that remain die. , the dwarven civilization is destroyed, the orcs and trolls disappear, and the few surviving hobbits hide in the mysterious Shire. Thus, the Fourth Age of the Sun represents our world today, where only humans remain, and nature falters against industry.

Although some consider it the beginning of epic fantasy (there are multiple precedents, such as Robert E. Howard's Conan or the King Arthur stories) none of its predecessors had the ability to create an entire mythology to the extent that JRR did. Tolkien, who literally invented a complete fictional world where dragons meet knights, dwarves and elves, with their geography, their history, their languages, legends and songs; a literary universe of unequaled depth and richness.

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Main exponents of The Lord of the Rings:

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In JRR Tolkien's novel Gollum was always special. Outcast and lonely, somewhat cowardly and grumpy, who only wanted to care for and protect his "treasure". The One Ring was his for a time but fate would change its course.

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Gandalf is the key to the trilogy making sense on its own. Without his help the hobbits and their "leader" Frodo would not have the same motivations. His absence in the novel would simply be nonsense. A mage who is not only wise, loyal, faithful and noble. It is that he also gives priceless advice and phrases. In the parenthesis in which the novel leaves Gandalf out of the adventure, great events occur, but we are always eagerly awaiting his return.

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Aragorn exemplifies and represents great values. He is a leader, a guy to follow and support in battle, through thick and thin. He will always be there to defend his own.

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To speak of Frodo is to speak of a mission in life. Many will have chosen him as their favorite character, for sure. He is noble and kind but also somewhat fearful at times and has a somewhat goofy air so that his friends always support him. He is the one in charge of taking the One Ring to Mount Doom. The end? Destroy it and establish peace. Why is it up to him, one more hobbit, to make this trip? Tolkien decided that he would be the main character, the absolute protagonist who would stand out from the others.

The Fellowship of the Ring made it very clear, there would be 9 members of this clan that formed the initial group but one of them was the "chosen one" it would be Frodo.

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Sauron is just a powerful presence that is always there, through many other lesser minions that get the heroes in trouble. Peter Jackson knew how to give him a strong presence thanks to that huge burning eye and the physique with that armor in CGI, although he devised modifications with respect to Tolkien's novel.

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The only elf that manages to be part of the 9 walkers of The Company or Community of the Ring, was made up of the 4 hobbits Frodo, Sam, Merry and Pippin; two humans like Aragorn and Boromir, the elf Legolas, the dwarf Gimli and the wizard Gandalf. Legolas is the elf who embodies the role of Prince of Black Forest. A mythical and beloved character, who has to take on the role of hero but who will not find it easy to put up with the stubbornness of his "non-friend" Gimli, whom he will have to join in the end. He will be key when he arrives in Rivendell, along with the rest of his 8 teammates.

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The most famous and important female character in the entire saga, Arwen , with absolute respect for others like Galadriel or Éowyn, of course. Her delicacy becomes somewhat elevated, and it would be nice if Tolkien had enhanced her aspect of heroism a little more, rather than that of "young" in love with Aragorn, who always weighs more. The daughter of the great elf Elrond is very important in Tolkien's first novel.

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One of the most powerful wizards to populate Middle-earth. His relationship with good old Gandalf is like yin and yang, facing each other but united by a very similar past. The fact that Saruman happened to be recruited by Sauron gives the whole story an air of epic with a very decent villain who will not make it easy for the components of the Fellowship of the Ring. Saruman is just another piece on this board, controlled by the almighty Sauron, but by himself Saruman is also an important and quite interesting wizard who gives a lot of play.

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The best thing about Sam is that his evolution. He is like that somewhat lost adolescent, with a somewhat cowardly character, accommodated in his village and his friends, who will have to assume responsibilities and learn. And with this adventure he really learns. Without Sam there would be no Frodo, beyond the theories that each one wants to come up with. They are a great couple of friends, much more mythical than Pippin and Merry, the other two hobbits of the unforgettable quartet.

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Among all the characters from the kingdom of the dwarves that appear in The Lord of the Rings and its universe, including The Hobbit, Gimli is the most powerful, sly and important of all. He was part of the council of Elrond and his destiny led him to be part of the Company of the ring among the 9 chosen. Expert in handling the ax especially, his iconic figure is unforgettable.

Basic principles of The Lord of the Rings:

The Ring Poem (Ring Verse, is its correct way), is a writing by the [Free Peoples], which came about after the Rings of Power were distributed:

Three Rings for the Elven Kings under heaven,

Seven for the Dwarf Lords in palaces of stone,

Nine for the mortal men doomed to die,

One for the Dark Lord, upon the dark throne

in the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

A ring to govern them all. A Ring to find them,

One Ring to draw them all and bind them in darkness

in the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

While it is true that The Lord of the Rings was conceived as a continuation of The Hobbit , it is arguably the same as The Silmarillion. The First Age of the Sun is the age of the elves, while the Second is that of the rise of the men of Numenor and its subsequent fall, but it is also that of the construction of a purely human culture on a land permanently plagued by evil. For this reason, in the Third Age of the Sun, that culture takes over Middle-earth and transforms it into a place where, once evil has been defeated, men find their true dimension: Tolkien He calls it the "Age of Men" and "the end of the Ancient Days." The Lord of the Rings is a metaphor that implies the culmination of a long process that gives rise to today's humanity, with all its mythical but also historical burden. The creation of the world, the implantation of evil as a model of absolute domination and its continuity through the ages, the struggle of the elves and their alliance with the edain for conserving the land Beleriand , the defeat of the first Dark Lord Morgoth and the rise of his right hand Sauron, the rise and fall of Númenor, the construction of the Rings of Power, the installation of the Númenórean kingdoms in Middle-earth, and finally Sauron's defeat, are embodied in The Silmarillion as a context underpinning the hobbit epic Frodo Baggins and the Fellowship of the Ring. If The Silmarillion is an account of a historical-mythical process, in The Hobbit an event of that process is narrated. This is not a mere historical fact, it is nodal and significant; because in the work it is known how the One Ring appears among the hobbits. An innocent story for children, although founded in the legendarium, becomes the trigger for the end of the Third Age of the Sun. Fortuitously and as part of a journey to rescue a treasure from the hand of the dragon Smaug , the hobbit Bilbo Baggins becomes Ringbearer. There JRR Tolkien , by adapting that children's play to The Lord of the Rings, delineates the culture, and therefore the temple, that will lead to frodo to be the main protagonist of the closure of the process initiated in the Ancient Days.

Reference:

https://es.ign.com/el-senor-de-los-anillos-1/130824/feature/los-10-mejores-personajes-de-el-senor-de-los-anillos

https://www.contra-mundum.org/castellano/schultz/TipXto_Ring.pdf

http://www3.uji.es/~vtomas/curso/seis.html

https://www.ecured.cu/El_Silmarillion

https://tolkiendili.com/wiki/Poem_of_the_Ring