5. ISLAM

Year of creation: 622 AD

Main book of Islam: The Koran.

Main prophets of Islam: Muhammad.

Headquarters / Capital in the world: Mecca and Medina, (Saudi Arabia) Jerusalem, (Palestine) Hebron, (State of Palestine)

Number of faithful around the world: 1,800 million.

Islamic God: Allah.

Main symbol of Islam: The star and the crescent.

Basic principles of Islam:

Islam is based on five fundamental pillars:

  1. The testimony (ash-Shahadatan): it means that only the god Allah deserves to be worshiped, and that Muhammad (Muhammad) is his messenger: it translates into a male testifying that he firmly believes and submits to the god Allah, and will worship only the god Allah, abandoning any kind of worship directed at another being.

  2. Establish the prayer (Salat): it is a set of words and actions that begin with the pronunciation of the Takbir (Allahu akbar) and conclude with the pronunciation of the Taslim (As-salaamu 'aleikum wa rahmatullah). Prayer is an obligation for every Muslim man or woman, and it should be performed on its prescribed schedule: five times each day these are: Fajr (dawn) of two Rak'at, Duhur (noon) of four Rak'at, 'Asr half evening) of four Rak'at, Maghrib (sunset) of three Rak'at, Ishaa '(night) of four Rak'at.

  3. Give zakat (help for the needy): the original meaning of the word Zakat is "purification" and "growth." Giving Zakat means giving a specified percentage on certain properties to certain classes of needy people. The percentage, which is mandatory on gold, silver and cash that has reached the amount (or the equivalent in money in the case of cash) of approximately 85 grams of gold and that has not been used in the course of of a lunar year, it is 2.5 percent. A person may also give as much as he wants in the form of alms or charity.

  4. Fasting in the month of Ramadan: Every year during the (lunar) month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, refraining from eating, drinking and having sexual intercourse. Although fasting is very beneficial for health, it is considered (by Muslims) mainly as a method of spiritual self-purification, since refraining oneself from the comforts of earthly life, even for a short time, the Fasting creates a true sympathy for those who suffer from hunger, at the same time that it grows in their spiritual life.

  5. The Pilgrimage to Mecca: The annual pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca is an obligation to fulfill once in a lifetime, for those who have the physical and financial means to carry it out. The annual Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Male pilgrims wear special and simple clothes (two pieces of cloth) that make any type of cultural or class distinction disappear. So that all present themselves before God without differences. About two million people go to Mecca every year from all corners of the planet.

Brief description of Islam.

Islam was born after the Hegira of Muhammad in 622 AD, and is divided into four currents: Sufie, Jajirism, Sunni and Shiite. An estimated three billion people profess one of these religions. However, these numbers are difficult to determine and due to the religious violence that exists between them, it is difficult to find information on the real number of faithful of each stream. For example, in the case of Christianity, the number of faithful is counted by the baptized people, (which does not imply that a part of the total has stopped being a practitioner or even a believer), but Muslims do not have a similar practice.

 

The Muslim religion is based on the teachings of Muhammad, prophetic words that during his life were never written and were only transmitted orally. Caliph Osman ordered the compilation in a text written in the Arabic language. To this day, this text is the holy book of Muslims, and is known as: the Koran, made up of 114 chapters that describe a set of stories and mandates that constitute the prophet's teachings, each of which corresponds to a particular circumstance.

 

References:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54602171

https://www.portaleducativo.net/septimo-basico/810/islam-origen-doctrina

https://www.muyhistoria.es/curiosidades/preguntas-respuestas/icuantos-musulmanes-hay-en-el-mundo#

https://www.ecured.cu/Islamismo#Historia

https://www.portaleducativo.net/septimo-basico/810/islam-origen-doctrina

References on contemporary murders in the name of radical Islam:

https://apnews.com/article/paris-france-europe-islam-da41fade85acf34597c5b8762f44a12d

https://www.npr.org/2020/09/01/908414559/charlie-hebdo-to-reprint-muhammad-cartoons-as-trial-linked-to-2015-attack-begins

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-53985407

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/sep/01/charlie-hebdo-reprints-muhammad-cartoons-prophet-terror-trial

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/20/beheaded-teacher-samuel-paty-to-get-legion-of-honour-france-says-minister

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/21/world/europe/france-teacher-beheading.html

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54602171

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/samuel-paty-teacher-beheading/2020/10/21/b94fe7fe-123e-11eb-a258-614acf2b906d_story.html

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