6. PROTESTANTISM OR LUTHERANISM

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Year of creation: 1517 AD

Main prophet: Martin Luther.

Main deity: The Holy Trinity: God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit.

Headquarters / Capital in the world: Germany, although the largest number of followers is in the United States.

Number of faithful around the world: 800 million.

Main exponents: Martin Luther, John Wesley, Elizabeth Fry, William Booth, Martin Luther King.

Prophet of Protestantism: Martin Luther.

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Main symbols of Protestantism:

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Basic principles of Protestantism:

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It is necessary to start from the idea that Protestantism highlights an important ineffectiveness towards indulgences, this being one of the basic elements on which it builds its theory and supports the prevalence of faith. This brings us to another important point: the notion of sin, because, for Luther, "everything is sin in man", what is really necessary is repentance and maintaining faith above all else.

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Doctrines of Protestantism

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It is important to bear in mind the emergence of the Protestant movement as an act of reform against the Catholic Church, so that the doctrines only make sense by understanding its origin within this church of Christianity. In addition to that Protestantism was divided into several currents that begin to adapt differently the interpretations of the Bible, as well as their customs and religious traditions. Thus, we can identify the following doctrines:

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  • Doctrine of Sola scriptura: it is based on the belief that every source of authority must be extracted from the Word of God, that is, all belief must be verified in the Bible. Any content other than the Bible is rejected, which is why it speaks of a branch of evangelical Protestantism.

  • Sola fide doctrine: this proposes the belief that only God can grant man's salvation, so it does not imply that he is worthy of it.

  • Solus Christus doctrine: Christ establishes himself as the sole mediator between God and man. Although it is a fairly common belief within the Christian Church, Protestantism takes it by adding a series of implications, among them: intercession on the part of the saints and the Virgin Mary is rejected, in addition to the veneration of them and, therefore, another part, the practice of the sacrament of penance.

  • Doctrine of Soli deo Gloria: only God is worthy of worship by believers and glorification, so it is believed that angels and all the beings he has created were only created for the worship of God. The veneration of objects or other beings, be they angels or men, is rejected.

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As well as, the position of Protestantism regarding essential issues within the Church, such as:

  • The papacy: in Protestantism, two key positions are taken against the papacy. On the one hand there is the total rejection of the role played by the Pope within the church as one of the leaders, while on the other hand he can be seen as one of the bishops and recognized only in this area.

  • Purgatory: within the particular theology of Protestantism there is no notion of purgatory, so they are in charge of frequently mentioning that purgatory does not exist.

  • The episcopate: the Protestant movement denies the possibility of assigning bishop attributions, as well as apostolic succession, because although the diaconate is preserved, as well as the presbyterate, these are not established or "called" by a sacrament that allow them succession.

  • Salvation: as we have mentioned, Protestantism denies that a being is worthy of salvation through any action, but that it is only freely granted by God.

  • Images: within Protestantism, the veneration of relics or images of any kind and with any representation is frequently rejected.

  • Forgiveness: obtaining forgiveness for sins committed or actions that could upset Christ, it is only possible to obtain it from a sincere confession and repentance with God. Confession is not a means of obtaining forgiveness.

  • Authority or hierarchy: this movement denies any type of statement about an authority that is similar to that of the Bible. On the other hand, it is important to note that in Protestantism only the books that are part of the Old Testament are taken into account and the Greek tradition used by the Catholic Church is rejected.

  • Transubstantiation: within the Eucharist, transubstantiation is rejected, the body of Christ and the blood shed in his sacrifice for the forgiveness of humanity. Hence, Protestantism assumes another position, that of consubstantiation, where the presence of Christ is seen as a real and spiritual presence.

  • The sacraments: this doctrine is taken by various aspects of Protestantism, where two sacraments of the Catholic and Christian faith are accepted. There is Baptism, as an initiation process, and the Eucharist, also called the Lord's Supper.

  • Baptism: although it is accepted within the doctrine of Protestantism, its perspective changes with respect to the practice, since, unlike the Catholic Church that performs it in newborns or in general, in early ages, this movement sees Baptism as a decision that must be made consciously and not imposed, therefore it implies a life decision to follow the set of teachings of Jesus Christ.

  • Mary: in the Protestant movement the Immaculate Conception of Mary is rejected and discredited, as well as the assumption in soul and body to the heavens of God. In addition to this, it is avoided to use terms such as "Mother of God", which is often used by the Catholic faith, since this could generate confusion, since she is the mother of Christ.

  • The liturgy: in most Protestant groups the practice of the liturgy as a celebration of religious worship is unnecessary, so only those that are interpreted more important and mandatory within the Bible are accepted. Among them, the baptism of water and the celebration of the Lord's Supper (with the presence of bread and wine) stand out. However, as we mentioned, these doctrines are taken by various Protestant groups with different interpretations, so that, in other branches such as Methodism and Anglicanism, the liturgy is an established and important practice that must be celebrated.

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Brief Description of Protestantism:

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Among the many religions that have marked our history, it is impossible not to speak of the Christian Religion, the source from which the Protestant church comes. The varied themes and the interpretations that have been applied allow the emergence of new ways of adopting religion, it is from here that we find Protestantism as one of the three most important aspects of Christianity, along with the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

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Although although there is talk of a Protestant movement, it is not usually called properly as a particular church, much less a religion. This is because Protestantism refers to certain groups of Christians that began to separate from the Roman Catholic Church during the sixteenth century, starting with the Protestant Reformation that Martin Luther would have promoted. However, we can speak of an ecclesiastical movement, since it is found only in the concept of the Christian Religion, from which it descends. So how did Protestantism come into being? This movement arises from the need to regenerate the Catholic Church, refer it to the primitive model of the church and move it back to the gospel.

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The core of Protestant teaching is found within the Five Solae (Latin: "Alone"), which provide a summary of Protestant theology. Essentially, Protestantism is characterized by the emphasis on the Bible as the only infallible source of truth and the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith alone (these are known as the formal and material causes of the Reformation respectively). Furthermore, Protestants have traditionally encouraged private interpretation of scripture by individuals rather than relying on the interpretation of the church (as is the case, for example, in Roman Catholicism with its magisterium or teaching authority). The Scriptures are said to be perspicuous or clear regarding the essential truths of salvation. As a result of different interpretations, various denominations have emerged, such as Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists, each with its own distinctive doctrines.

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Protestant Reformation:

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At the beginning of the 16th century, living conditions were more than uncertain and Christians feared the end of the world and God's judgment. The Catholic Church offered various solutions to appease the fear, in particular the sale of "indulgences"; However, some people severely criticized such practices and called for a reform of the Catholic Church. Little by little this led to a religious and political crisis that culminated in the birth of a new faith: Protestantism.

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The meaning of the word Protestant, which is a religious term, dates back to the seventeenth century, when the German princes, convinced that the theses of Luther (the Augustinian monk Martin Luther , doctor of theology and professor at the University of Wittenberg was the father of the Reformation. In 1517 he published his 95 theses that challenged papal authority and criticized the abuses of the Church, especially the sale of indulgences. By refusing to retract his writings, at the Diet of Worms, Luther broke definitively with Rome) They were a true critic of the Catholic Church, and therefore protested against the repressive measures taken against Luther by Rome. The word 'Protestant' then derives from the protests of the German princes at the Second Diet of Speyer in 1529. The Diet voted to end the tolerance of those who followed the teachings of Martin Luther within Germany, which had previously been granted on the first Diet. in 1526.

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Reformers like Luther and Calvin spread new ideas such as the concept of salvation by faith alone, by the grace of God, and by Holy Scripture. These ideas had a profound effect on all of Europe, but they really took hold in the North. This led to the breakdown of political unity in many states and the outbreak of religious wars between Catholic and Protestant countries. The Reform Movement not only had religious consequences, it also led to social and political changes, the results of which can still be seen today. Luther's ideas spread rapidly, becoming a political-ideological weapon that the German princes used to confront Emperor Charles V. Its expansion also led to its fragmentation, appearing new versions of the Reformation. In Switzerland Calvinism appears, whose originality lies in the importance it gives to predestination. John Calvin will defend that man is predestined for salvation or damnation. His postulates spread through the Netherlands, France (Huguenots), England (Puritans), and Scotland, where John Knox founded the Presbyterian Church. Anglicanism was born in England, clearly politically motivated. The break with the pope was prompted by King Henry VIII, who wanted to strengthen his authority and increase his wealth. After the Act of Supremacy of 1534 the King of England became head of the Anglican Church and imposed a mixed doctrine that took elements from Catholics and Protestants. For example, both Catholics and all Protestants believe that the Bible is the Word of God, that is, that the books contained in the Bible have been revealed by God. The difference is that Catholics believe it because the Church teaches it and she is the guarantor of this truth (the Church, then, must prove herself that she has this authority and then guarantee with that authority that such or such books have been inspired Oh my God). Protestants also believe that the Bible is the Word of God and hold it in great reverence.


Basic principles of the Protestant Reformation:

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Justification by faith: people are saved only by their faith, not by their works.

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The universal priesthood: every believer is a priest and can freely interpret the sacred texts, which will facilitate their translation into the vernacular languages.


The unique value of the Holy Scriptures, denying the value of the Church's tradition as a source of truth and authority.


Rejection of the infallible authority of the pope.


Abolition of compulsory priestly celibacy.


Validity of only two sacraments: Eucharist and Baptism.

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References:

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http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://usuarios.lycos.es/evangelicosperu/Imagenes/reforma_europa.jpg

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http://jcdonceld.blogspot.com/2010/03/religiones-en-la-europa-moderna-tras-la.html

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http://protestantism.co.uk/

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https://es.catholic.net/op/articulos/3397/cat/13/los-principios-fundamentales-del-protestantismo.html

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